World’s first autonomous, submersible instrument for measuring the volume scattering function (VSF) of water with depolarization. Measures P11, P12 and P22 elements of Mueller matrix of water. Also beam attenuation c and scattering b.
The LISST-VSF covers the angular range from 0.094 to 150°. Of this, the range 0.094 to 14.9° is covered with Sequoia’s 32-ring detector optics as in the LISST-200X. From 15 to 150° scattering from the length of a laser is viewed by a rotating eyeball. These data produce P12 and a noisy estimate of P22 (no P22 estimate at 45 and 135°).
- In-situ measurements of P11, P12 and P22 (noisy) elements of scattering Mueller matrix, (P11 is VSF) from 15-150º (no P22 estimate at 45 and 135°).
- VSF (P11) only at small angles, 0.09 to 10º in 32 logarithmic steps in angles.
- Only two detectors employed with absolute radiant sensitivity (A/W) calibration.
- Beam attenuation measured with optics similar to our LISST-100X/200X.
- Roving Eyeball™ optics permit 1-degree resolution in angles between 15 -150º.
- Sampling rate at 4 seconds per measurement set (involves 2 turns of Roving Eyeball with vertical, and horizontal laser polarization).
- Daylight rejection by laser modulation.
- Dynamic range in VSF measurements extended via laser power dimming.
- Data from small and large angles in a single data stream, including depth and temperature.
LISST-VSF Brochure - Download
Sequoia Scientific Product Catalog 2020 - DownloadManual
LISST-VSF Manual - DownloadTechnical Papers
Calibration of the LISST-VSF to derive the volume scattering functions in clear waters - Download